Historical

Administrative History

updated on:2019-04-29

尼姆足球俱乐部 www.qdumzj.com.cn

Before the Sui Dynasty

Archaeological findings prove that Panzhihua is one of the areas witnessing the earliest human activities. In addition to the ruins of the “Yuanmou Man” and the “Butterfly Man” found in the neighboring area, the ruins of the Huilong Cave hominids who lived about 18,000 to 12,000 years ago are found in the downtown area of Panzhihua.

Panzhihua is also a corridor for the south-to-north migration and the east-and-west exchange of the hominids. The earliest written human activities here include the myth described in the Shih Chi: Biography of the Yellow Emperor which reads that Changyi, the second son of the Yellow Emperor, got demoted and exiled to live in Ruoshui (the downstream area of Yalong River and a part of the river developed after the combination of Yalong River and Jinsha River) and gave birth to Zhuanxu, a legendary monarch of later generation), and the legend stated in the Book of History: Book of Zhou: Oath before the Muye Battle about Mao people, Wei people, and Pu people, all lived in this place, joining in the troops of the king Wu for punitive expedition against the king Zhou of the Zhou Dynasty.

According to administrative zoning described in the Tribute of Yu, Panzhihua was under the administration of Liangzhou (almost equal to a province today) in the ancient times and later incorporated to Yongzhou together with Liangzhou when it came to the Zhou Dynasty.

In the fifth year of the King Shenjing of Zhou Dynasty (316 B.C.), the kingdom Qin conquered the kingdom Shu. The Shih Chi: Justice reads: “the kingdom of Cancong (another name of “Shu” in ancient times) was conquered and the later generations came to and settled down in Yao and Xi (including the land of Panzhihua today)”. When it came to the thirtieth year of the King Nan of Zhou Dynasty (285 B.C.), the king Huiwen of the Kingdom Qin dispatched Zhang Ruo, the governor of Shu, to fight and take over the land Zuo and Jiangnan (both were part of Shu) and set up shires and counties there, which “ended when it came to the prosperous period of the Han Dynasty later”.

In the sixth year of Emperor Yuan of Han Dynasty (129 B.C.), Liu Che, the Emperor Wu of Han Dynasty, arranged Sima Xiangru to offer amnesty and enlistment to the rebels Xi people, which “reaches Mo (the Dadu River area today), Ruoshui, Qiaosunshui (Anning River today) and gets through Qiong and Zuo”. When the Xi people accepted amnesty and enlistment, the Han Dynasty set up “one Duwei (a military rank in the ancient China, and more than counties, all subordinated to the prefecture Shu” (Shih Chi: Biography of Sima Xiangru). In both the Qin Dynasty and the Yuanguang Period of the Han Dynasty, administrative organizations were set up here, all included the land of Panzhihua today.

When it came to the sixth year of the Yuanding Period of Han Dynasty (111B.C.), the prefecture Yuexi and 15 subordinated counties were set up on the land from the west Panzhihua to Chuxiong of Yunnan Province today.

When it came to the Kingdom Shu-Han in the Period of Three Kingdoms, the county Dazuo was incorporated to the county Dingzuo, and the counties Gufu and Qingling of the prefecture Yuexi was taken out and incorporated to the prefecture Yunnan, a newly established prefecture subordinated to Yizhou. As for the territory, except that the land in the middle part of the area north to the river was taken out and incorporated to the county Dingzuo, the other configurations kept unchanged. Thus, Panzhihua changed from a place with one prefecture holding seven counties to be a place with two prefectures jointly holding seven counties.

When it came to the Western Jin Dynasty, Sanjiang was incorporated into Huiwu, while Gufu into Suijiu. What’s more, considering the big size of Yizhou, the four shires in the south and the middle part of Yizhou were taken out and constituted a new prefecture named Ningzhou, and the shire Yunnan was incorporated also into Ningzhou as a whole. Later, the administrative organization Ningzhou was abolished but recovered again, with the shire Yuexi incorporated into its jurisdiction. The east part of the land north to the river of Panzhihua today was taken out and incorporated into the county Huiwu, while the west part of the same land taken out and incorporated to the county Suijiu. At this time, Panzhihua changed from a land holding two shires and six counties subordinated to Yizhou to a land holding two shires and five counties subordinated to Ningzhou.

In the first year of Yongchu Period of the Kingdom Song (A.D. 420), Liu Yu ended the Eastern Jin Dynasty and founded the Liu-Song Dynasty in the south of China, with territory including Yizhou and Ningzhou. the prefecture Yuexi had the office of the local government moved from Huiwu to Qiongdu; the prefecture Pingle and all its subordinated counties were abolished, while the county Gufu was divided into two counties: East Gufu and West Gufu. At that time, except that the land west to the river of Panzhihua was incorporated to Qiongdu again, and that Daping and the west part of the land north to the river was assigned to the county East Gufu, the other parts kept the same, holding two provinces: Yizhou and Ningzhou; 3 prefectures: Yuexi, Yunnan, and Xingning, and 5 counties: Qiogdu, Huiwu, Dingzuo, Qingling, and East Gufu.

At the late years of Liu-Song Dynasty, there were “aboriginal tribes surrendered and immediately rebelled relying on the natural barrier” in the prefecture Yuexi of Yizhou (stated in the Geography of the Peaceful Universe relying on citation from Shi Dao Zhi), which resulted in all the counties subordinated to Yuexi abolished; while big families represented by Cuan in Ningzhou always “disobeyed orders of the government relying on the great distance” and “claimed themselves as the king” (the Book of Southern Qi Dynasty: Local Annals and the Book of Family Cuan). When it came to the Southern Qi Dynasty (A.D. 479), there was only the Yusong Prefecture without any subordinated counties. Shortly after the foundation of the Kingdom of Southern Liang, the Kingdom of the Northern Wei had, in the thirteenth year of Tianjian Period (A.D. 514), sent troops to invade Yizhou and Ningzhou but retreated soon. Southern Liang appointed Xiao Ji to act the governor of Yizhou and Xiao had “worked in Shu for seventeen years and expanded the territory to Ningzhou and Yuexi” (the Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government: Book of Liang) and founded Xizhou and the county Xilu on the land west to the river of Panzhihua and Dechang. However, all these land were occupied again by the family Cuan by the Dabao Period of the Emperor Jianwen of the Southern Liang Dynasty.

Later, the Kingdom of Northern Wei broke up into two political powers: the East and the West. The East Wei sent troops and invaded some places of Yizhou, Ningzhou, and Xizhou in the first year of Chengsheng Period by taking the advantage that the Southern Liang was trapped in civil wars and Xiao Ji was busy at fighting for the crown. Anyway, although it is said that “the southwestern minority groups were grateful at the governance” (the Tablet Inscriptions for the Temple in Recognition of Yuchi Jiong), the government failed to actually control the land of Panzhihua today occupied by the family Cuan at that time. After the foundation of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, the central government didn’t actually take over Yuexi before twice of military expedition in the fourth year of Baoding Period (A.D. 564) and the third year of Tianhe Period (A.D. 568). After the expedition, the government set up Dingzuo Town in Dingzuo County, with the territory covering Daping and the middle part of the land north to the river, while the land west to the river was controlled by the prefecture Pingle and the county Kequan of Xuanhua subordinated to Yanzhou in succession. Except for these lands, the land east to the river, the east and west part of the land north to the river, and the land south to the river were all occupied by family Cuan.

From the Sui Dynasty to the Yuan Dynasty

In the early years of the Sui Dynasty, Yanzhou was kept but later renamed as the West Ningzhou, Xizhou, and recovered the name Yuexi. The five prefectures subordinated to Yanzhou, as configured in the Northern Zhou Dynasty, were abolished, and another five counties were incorporated to Yuexi. Daping and the middle part of the land north to the river, both a part of Panzhihua today, still belonged to Dingzuo Town, while the land west to the river incorporated into Kequan County, the land east to the river and the east part of the land north to the river were incorporated to the newly established county Huichuan, and the west part of the land north the river and the land south to the river were still controlled by family Cuan.

When it came to the Tang Dynasty, massive reforms were made in the southwest, with the prefecture Yuexi renamed as Xizhou (equal to a province today) and a military post established; later, Xizhou regained the name Yuexi, with the military post kept. The prefecture Yuexi held nine counties, including Xilu (covering the land west to the river), Huichuan (covering the land east to the river), Heji (covering the east part of the land north to the river), and Changming (covering Daping and the middle and west part of the land north to the river which belonged to Laozhou, Songwai, and Xunsheng in succession). In the Tang Dynasty, Yuexi was used as a base land for political amnesty and military expedition to take back Ningzhou which was later renamed as Langzhou and Rongzhou, and a new prefecture named Yaozhou was established in Longdong River, all with military post established. In the territory of Panzhihua, the land south to the river was firstly subordinated to the county Qingling of Xipu and later to the county Shibu of Xili and finally to Yaozhou.

In the ninth year of the Tianbao Year of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 750), Kingdom of Nanzhao, a locality separatist power, conquered Yaozhou and later invaded Xizhou in the period from the second year of Zhide Period and the first year of Qianyuan Period (A.D. 757-758). The county Miyi today was named as Nuodan at that time and subordinated to the prefecture Qingning controlled by the Huichuan Military Post. In Yanbian County, there was a town named Songwai, an area controlled by the prefecture Xiangcheng controlled by the military area Jianchuan, while the west part of the land north to the river controlled by the prefecture Shanju, also a part of the military post Jianchuan, and the land south to the river controlled by the military post Longdong. Such administrative structure and system were roughly reserved by future locality separatist powers after the Kingdom of Nanzhao, including the Big Changhe, the Big Tianxing (Xingyuan), and the Big Yining.

In the second year of Tianfu Period of the Later Jin Dynasty (A.D. 937), Duan Siming annihilated the Big Yining and founded the Kingdom of Dali. At that time, the land west to the river was controlled by the tribe Bacui and the tribue Luolan, and the prefecture Jianchang was set up. The land east to the river and the east part of the land north to the river were controlled by the tribe Jiang and subordinated to Huichuan. In Daping and the middle and west part of the land north to the river, there was the tribe Ruku, and this land was subordinated to the prefecture Shanju.

In the Song Dynasty, the Mongol Nation (the precedent of the Yuan Dynasty) annihilated family Duan’s Kingdom of Dali and occupied the west part of nowadays Panzhihua in the fourth year of the Emperor Xianzong (A.D. 1254, namely, the second year of Baoyou Period of the Southern Song Dynasty).

fter the founding of Yuan Dynasty, a pacification authority named Luoluosi and a marshal office were se up there, holding several prefectures and counties and subordinated to the central province Yunnan. the land west to the river then was assigned to the prefecture Puji and Weilong of Dingchang (Dechang in the future), while the land east to the river belonged to Wu’an of Huichuan, the east part of the land north to the river belonged to Lixi, Daping and the middle part of the land north to the river belonged to the county Runyan of Baixing, the west part of the land north to the river belonged to Beisheng of the army-civilian pacification authority of Lijiang, and the land south to the river belonged to the county Dayao of Dali where the marshal office and the pacification divisions were located.

In the fifteenth year of the Hongwu Period of Ming Dynasty (1382), the pacification authority Luoluosi was abolished and the land controlled by such authority was taken out from Yunnan and incorporated to the administrative government Chengxuan of Sichuan. Another Xingdu government of Sichuan was established here, holding five garrisons, eight military posts, and four governors. The land west to the river was controlled by the two prefectures Puji and Weilong (became a governor office later) subordinated to the military-civilian command office of the garrison Jianchang, while the land east to the river held by the local big family and defender Miyi of Huichuan, the east part of the land north to the river belonged to Lixi, Daping and the middle part of the land north to the river controlled by the mid-left office (divided into five) of the Dachong River defender of the garrison Yanjing and the governor Mara, the west part of the land north to the river held by the prefecture Beisheng directly subordinated to the administrative government Chengxuan of Yunnan, and the land south to the river controlled by the county Dayao of Yaozhou, an administrative government of Yunnan province. Since then, the territory of Panzhihua was held by the two administrative regions of Sichuan and Yunnan.

In the twenty-sixth year of Kangxi Period of the Qing Dynasty (1681), the central government had never actually controlled this land until the “Revolt of the Three Feudatories” was suppressed. When it came to the sixth year of Yongzheng Period (1728), a prefecture named Ningyuan was established here, subordinated to Sichuan Province and countiesof Xichang, Mianning, Yanyuan, Zhaojue, and Huili were established, all subordinated to Ningyuan. In the twenty-sixth year of Qianlong Period (1761), the governor office Miyi was changed as the inspection office and incorporated to Huili. In the twenty-second year of Jiaqing Period(1817), another inspection office Asuola was founded in Yanyuan County. In the first year of Xuantong Period (1909), Yanyuan County was promoted as the Yanbian Department and was under direct control of Ningyuan. Therefore, the land west to the river then was controlled by Puji and Weilong subordinated to Xichang, while the land east to the river held by Miyi of Huili, the east part of the land north to the river belonged to Huili, and the former Daping and the middle part of the land north to the river held by Yanbian Department. As for the province Yunnan, in the thirty-fourth year of Guangxu Period (1908), the former Yaping and Huarongzhuang owned by the directly-controlled Yongbei Department were incorporated together as the county Rongping and later the county Huaping. The west part of the land north to the river was a part of the county Huaping, while the land south to the river was the north part of the county Dayao.

When it came to the period of the Republic of China, the territory of Panzhihua was still controlled by the two provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan. In the first year of the period of the Republic of China (1912), Miyi was marked as a branch of Huili. In the second year of the same period, Huili was identified as a county, and so was Yanbian Department. A Qieque administrative region was set up in the north part of Dayao. In the ninth year of the same period (1920), Miyi was identified as a branch of the county Huili. In the eighteenth year of the same period (1929), Yongren County was founded in the Qieqie administrative region. In the thirty-third year of the same period (1935), Ningyuan was changed and identified as the eighteenth administrative supervision area of Sichuan Province. In the thirty-seventh year of the same period (1939), the land north to the Jinsha River and the land east to the Baguan River were incorporated to the newly established Xikang Province together with the eighteenth administrative supervision area, as the third administrative supervision area of the new province. In the thirty-ninth year of the same period (1941), Dechang Bureau was established. In the forty-third year of the same period (1945), the land was promoted to be a county and the land west to the river was taken out of Xichang County and incorporated to Dechang County, while the land east to the river and the east part of the land north to the river were incorporated to Huili, Daping and the middle part of the land north to the river were still part of the county Yanbian. All these areas were controlled by the new province Xikang. In the contrast, the west part of the land north to the river was a part of the county Huaping, and the land south to the river was taken out of the county Dayao and held by the county Yongren, both subordinated to the province Yunnan.

   After the Great Liberation, the county Miyi was established, with the territory covering some places of Huili and Dechang, subordinated to Xichang Special Area of Xikang Province (thanks to the special climate, Miyi has abundant natural resources, especially the rice, which grew third times a year, and thus the name “Miyi” evolved to the current “Miyi” (which means “rice grows easy”). In 1955, the province Xikang was abolished and the counties Huili, Miyi and Yanbian were incorporated again into Sichuan Province together with the Xichang Special Area. The west part of the land north to the river was firstly incorporated to the county Huaping of Lijiang Special Area of Yunnan Province, while the land south to the river subordinated to Yongren County of Chuxiong Special Area. When it came to the year 1958, the two counties Yongsheng and Huaping were combined as a new county Yonghua and the county Yongren was merged into the county Dayao, and the land involved were changed accordingly. In 1961, the administrative system of Huaping County and Yongren County were recovered, with the west part of the land north to the river assigned again to Huaping, and the land south to the river assigned to Yongren again. This administrative structure kept unchanged until the establishment of Panzhihua as a city.

On January 7, 1965, the Southwest Branch of the Communist Party of China submitted the Application as to Establish the Government for the Dukou Industrial Area to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council, proposing to set up the people’s government for the industrial area under the unified leadership of the party committee of the Dukou Industrial Area.

On February 5, 1965, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the Reply as to Establish the People’s Council of Panzhihua Special Area approving to establish the people’s councial of Panzhihua Special Area to act both the government function and enterprise management. On March 20, the People’s Council of Panzhihua Special Area was founded officially. On April 22, the State Council replied the request of the People’s Council of Sichuan Province and approved to rename the Panzhihua Special Area as Dukou City, with the total identified territory area of 1,411.96km2, crossing the both sides of Jinsha River.

When the city was established in 1965, 18 communities of Renhe District and 9 communities of Datian District, subordinated to Yongren County of Yunnan Province, 7 communities of Daxing District and 3 communities of Sanyang District, subordinated to Huaping County of Lijiang Special Area, 2 communities of Tongde District and Wuben District (respectively) subordinated to Yanbian County of Xichang Special Area of Sichuan Province, and 2 communities (Xinmin and Anning) of Hongge District subordinated to Huili County, of Sichuan Province, totally 43 communities, were incorporated, upon decision of the People’s Council of Dukou City, into the four districts specially established then for these communities, namely, Dahe, Datian, Jinjiang, and Yuquan.

In February 1973, upon the approval of the provincial party committee, it was determined to remove the administrative system of the 4 districts of Datian, Dahe, Yuquan, and Jinjiang and establish three new districts, namely, Dongqu, Xiqu, and Jiaoqu. Bingcaogang under the administration of Dongqu was the political, economic, and cultural center of the city and the place where the office of the municipal party committee and the municipal government was located.

In October 1974, upon the written reply of the State Council, the two communities Pingdi (excluding the 3 production teams of Luoshuijian, Damatang, and Xiaoshiqiao) and Dalongtan of Yongren County, Yunnan Province, was assigned to the jurisdiction of Jiaoqu District of Dukou.

In July 1978, it was replied in written and approved by the provincial revolutionary committee to assign the 3 communities (Hongge, Xinjiu, and Mengxin) subordinated to Hongge District of Huili County and the 4 production teams of He’ai Community to the jurisdiction of Jiaoqu District of Dukou City. When it came to October of the same year, upon approval of the State Council, the two counties of Miyi and Yanbian formerly subordinated to Xichang Special Area were assigned to the jurisdiction of Dukou.

On August 7, 1981, Jiaoqu District was renamed as Renhe District.

On January 23, 1987, for the purpose of satisfying the needs for opening to the outside world, the city Dukou was renamed Panzhihua upon approval of the State Council.